The use of Communication cards for Negotiations in Zimbabwe.

Essay by amajahaUniversity, Master'sA, September 2005

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Negotiation is nothing more than a process for reaching an agreement when there are conflicting interests. The basis for negotiation is exchange: whenever we attempt to influence another person through an exchange of ideas or something of material or psychological value, we are negotiating. Further, negotiation is the process we use to satisfy our needs when someone else controls at least in part what we want or need.

Negotiating to a formula is that type of negotiation done following certain laid down procedures or principles. The negotiating people are guided on how they should behave during negotiation.

When the Manager and subordinate are negotiating to a formula, the two are guided by certain procedures/literature on how they should carryout the negotiation. The whole negotiation process is guided to conclusion. This paper attempts to discuss negotiation to a formula using cards.


Literature has shown that there are three areas on which the success of a negotiation is based - Individual characteristics, situational contingencies, and strategic and tactical process.

These tend to vary across cultures. Although all the three have been found to be important, negotiators have most control over the process - strategy and tactics. Negotiators can influence the success or failure of a negotiation most directly by managing the process.


Autocratic executives endeavor to control all types of negotiations taking place within their organization using communication cards. Managers and Employees are coerced into attending communication courses. At the end of such courses, they are given cards detailing how they should behave when they are communicating / negotiating.

The managers and employees are then told to always carry the cards and to flash them whenever they thought the other party was not communicating / behaving to the...